The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

Issue: 3/2015

Jakub Taczanowski

Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Cracow, Poland, ja-kub.taczanowski@poczta.onet.pl

Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines) are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambig-uous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

Pages: 
249–268
DOI: 10.1515/revecp-2015-0019
JEL: R40
Keywords: regional railway lines, railway liberalisation, rail transport, Central Europe
References: 

 

BARESCH M. (2013), Industrieökonomische Analyse der Liberalisierung des Personenverkehrs der österreichischen Bahn (Diplomarbeit), Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre Abteilung für Industrieökonomie, http://www.econ.jku.at/members/Francois/files/LVS-WS13/Dipl_Kap_Baresch.pdf, 2014.

BERIA P., QUINET E., DE RUS G., SCHULZ C. (2010), A comparison of rail liberalisation levels across four European countries, Selected Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Transport Research Society, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/29142/.

BOŠKOVIĆ B., BUGARINOVIĆ M. (2015), Why and how to manage the process of liberalization of a regional railway market: South-Eastern European case study, Transport Policy, 41, pp 50-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.03.009

BRADSHAW B. (2001), Lessons from a Railway Privatisation Experiment, Japan Railway & Transport Review, No 29, pp 4-11.

CHARLTON C., GIBB R., SHAW J.(1997), Regulation and continuing monopoly on Britain’s railways, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 147-153. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6923(97)84103-8

DEVILLEX., VERDUYN F. (2012), Implementation of EU legislation on rail liberalisation in Belgium, France, Germany and The Netherlands, National Bank of Belgium. Working Paper Series, No 221.

FINGER M. (2014), Governance of competition and performance in European railways: Ananalysis of five cases, Utilities Policy, 31, pp 278-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.jup.2014.03.003

GÓRNY J. (2013), Kolejowe regionalne przewozy pasażerskie w Polsce w świetle polityki transportowej Unii Europejskiej, Studia i Prace z Geografii i Geologii, nr 32, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Bogucki.

GÜTTERMANN F. (2013), Volkswirtschaftliche Effekte der Liberalisierung des Eisenbahnpersonenverkehrs in Österreich., http://www.akeuropa.eu/de/publication-full.html?doc_id=300&vID=43, 2014.

KNOWLES R. (1998), Passenger rail privatisation in Great Britain and its implications, especially for urban areas, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp 117-133. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6923(98)00005-2

KNOWLES R., HALL D. (1998), Transport Deregulation and Privatisation, Hoyle B., Knowles R., Modern Transport Geography, Chichester, New York, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto: Wiley& Sons, pp 75-96.

KOMUSIŃSKI S. (2010), Przekształcenia przestrzenne sieci pasażerskiego transportu kolejowego w Polsce w latach 1988-2008, Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji PTG, tom XVII, pp 1-140.

Liczba pasażerów rośnie, ale nie w PKP Intercity, 1 April 2014, http://www.rynek-kolejowy.pl/51602/liczba_pasazerow_rosnie_ale_nie_w_pkp..., retrieved 4 June 2014

MILCZAREK A. (2012), Otwarcie polskiego rynku kolejowego przewozów towarowych i pasażerskich – szanse i zagrożenia, Studia i Prace Wydziału Nauk Ekonomicznych i Zarządzania Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, nr 27, pp 101-123.

OSTAPOWICZ B. (2012), Liberalizacja polityki transportowej Unii Europejskiej, Studia i Prace Wydziału Nauk Ekonomicznych i Zarządzania Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, nr 27, pp 77-100.

PAWŁOWSKI J. (2012), Dzieje kolei wąskotorowych na obszarze byłej Zachodniej DOKP, Keller D. (ed.), Dzieje kolei w Polsce, Rybnik: Eurosprinter, Muzeum w Rybniku, pp 185-210.

RAIL LIBERALISATION INDEX 2011. Market Opening: Rail Markets of the Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and Norway in comparison (2011), A study by IBM Global Business Services in conjunction with Prof.Dr.h.c. Christian Kirchner, Humboldt University, Berlin, www.deutschebahn.com, 2014.

RODRIGUE J.-P. (2013), The Geography of Transport Systems, New York: Rouledge, http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/index.html, 2013

Rok zmien 2011: Liberalizáciatrhu osobnej železničnejdopravy, http://www.vlaky.net/zeleznice/spravy/3857-Rok-zmien-2011-Liberalizacia-..., 2014.

RYNEK TRANSPORTU KOLEJOWEGO W POLSCE W 2013– SYNSTEZA (2013), Urząd Transportu Kolejowego, Wydział Analiz, Departament Regulacji Rynku Kolejowego, www.utk.gov.pl, retrieved 4 June 2014

SIECIOWY ROZKŁAD JAZDY POCIĄGÓW (Polish Railway Timetable) 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011.

TACZANOWSKI, J. (2012), A comparative study of local railway networks in Poland and the Czech Republic,Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, No. 18, Nicolaus Toruń: Copernicus University Press, pp. 125–138.

TAYLOR Z. (2007), Rozwój i regres sieci kolejowej w Polsce, Warszawa: IGiPZ PAN.

TOMEŠ Z. (2006), Konkurence na železnici,Národohospodářskýobzor, No. 4, pp 97-103.

Web pages

www.akeuropa.eu/de/publication-full.html?doc_id=300&vID=43, retrieved 3 June 2014

www.arriva.pl, retrieved 1 June 2014

www.ctk.cz, retrieved 12 August 2015

www.econ.jku.at/members/Francois/files/LVS-WS13/Dipl_Kap_Baresch.pdf, retrieved 3 June 2014.

http://ec.europa.eu, retrieved 11 August 2015.

http://www.euroregion-nysa.pl, retrieved 12 August 2015

www.gwtr.cz, retrieved 3 June 2014

http://jhmd.cz/o-nas/historie, retrieved 3 June 2014.

www.jizdni-rady.nanadrazi.cz, retrieved 22 August 2015.

www.kolejedolnoslaskie.eu, retrieved 1 June 2014

http://kolejeslaskie.com, retrieved 1 June 2014

http://koleje-wielkopolskie.com.pl, retrieved 1 June 2014

http://lka.lodzkie.pl, retrieved 1 June 2014

www.malopolskie.pl, retrieved 1 June 2014

www.mazowieckie.com.pl, retrieved 1 June 2014

www.noevog.at, retrieved 3 June 2014

www.pinzgauerlokalbahn.at, retrieved 3 June 2014

www.psmkms.krakow.pl, retrieved 11 August 2015

www.rynek-kolejowy.pl, retrieved 4 June 2014

www.sart.cz/zeleznice-desna/historie, retrieved 3 June 2014

http://spz.logout.cz/trate/vrbno.html, retrieved 3 June 2014

www.utk.gov.pl, retrieved 11 August 2015

www.vlaky.net/zeleznice/spravy/3857-Rok-zmien-2011-Liberalizacia-trhu-os..., retrieved 3 June 2014.

www.zelpage.cz/trate/ceska-republika, retrieved 3 June 2014