Determinants of Patent Protection Regimes: A Self-Organizing Map Approach

Issue: 2/2018

Caner Demir

Kırklareli University, Department of Economics, Kırklareli, Turkey, caner.demir@klu.edu.tr

Raif Cergibozan

Kırklareli University, Department of Economics, Kırklareli, Turkey, raif.cergibozan@klu.edu.tr

This study investigates the determinants of patent protection regimes with the use of the self-organizing map (SOM) method. Unlike any previous attempts in the existing literature, this paper takes into consideration the lack of analytical techniques in the past and tries to demonstrate a potential relationship between the patent protection and its determinants through the employment of a newer, more consistent method. The study consists of two main parts. Firstly, the patent protection strengths of 111 countries have been classified via a SOM-based model and it turns out that three types of clusters can be found around the world; low-, mid- and high-protection. The results also show that the densities of these clusters have dramatically changed in the post-1980 period. In the second part of the study, the determinants of the patent rights are examined for 49 developed and developing countries. After revisiting the older econometric models with recent data, this study also analyses the determinants with the SOM method. The findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between GDP per capita, human capital, R&D, market freedom, political rights and patent protection for about two-thirds of the sample; which implies that the patent policies of these countries are in accordance with the selected economic and social factors.

Pages: 
261-283
DOI: 10.2478/revecp-2018-0013
JEL: O34, C45
Keywords: intellectual property rights, innovation, self-organizing Map, artificial neural networks
References: 

FEENSTRA, Robert C.; INKLAAR, Robert; TIMMER, Marcel P. The next generation of the Penn World Table. American Economic Review, 2015, 105.10: 3150-82.

GINARTE, Juan C.; PARK, Walter G. Determinants of patent rights: A cross-national study. Research policy, 1997, 26.3: 283-301., DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(97)00022-X

HALL, Bronwyn H. Patents and patent policy. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2007, 23.4: 568-587., DOI: doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grm037

KI, Seo Jin; LEE, Seung Won; KIM, Joon Ha. Developing alternative regression models for describing water quality using a self-organizing map. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, 57.43: 20146-20158., DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1112981

KOHONEN, Teuvo. Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps. Biological cybernetics, 1982, 43.1: 59-69., DOI: 10.1007/BF00337288

MOSTAFA, Mohamed M. Clustering the ecological footprint of nations using Kohonen’s self-organizing maps. Expert Systems with Applications, 2010, 37.4: 2747-2755., DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2009.09.016

PARK, Y. S., GEVREY, M., LEK, S., GIRAUDEL, J.L. (2005). Evaluation of relevant species in communities: development of structuring indices for the classification of communities using a self-organizing map. In: Modelling Community Structure in Freshwater Ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005. p. 369-380, DOI: 10.1007/3-540-26894-4_31

PARK, Walter G. International patent protection: 1960–2005. Research policy, 2008, 37.4: 761-766., DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2008.01.006

RAPP, Richard T.; ROZEK, Richard P. Benefits and costs of intellectual property protection in developing countries. J. World Trade, 1990, 24: 75-102.

SARLIN, Peter. Sovereign debt monitor: A visual self-organizing maps approach. In: Computational Intelligence for Financial Engineering and Economics (CIFEr), 2011 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 2011. p. 1-8.. IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/CIFER.2011.5953556

SARLIN, Peter; PELTONEN, Tuomas A. Mapping the state of financial stability. Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 2013, 26: 46-76., DOI: 10.1016/j.intfin.2013.05.002

SEYOUM, Belay. The impact of intellectual property rights on foreign direct investment. The Columbia Journal of World Business, 1996, 31.1: 50-59., DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5428(96)90006-X

SHERWOOD, Robert M. Intellectual property systems and investment stimulation: The rating of systems in eighteen developing countries. Idea, 1996, 37: 261.

TISON, J., et al. Use of unsupervised neural networks for ecoregional zoning of hydrosystems through diatom communities: case study of Adour-Garonne watershed (France). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 2004, 159.3: 409-422., DOI: 10.1127/0003-9136/2004/0159-0409

TISON, J., et al. Typology of diatom communities and the influence of hydro-ecoregions: a study on the French hydrosystem scale. Water Research, 2005, 39.14: 3177-3188., DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.05.029

VESANTO, Juha; ALHONIEMI, Esa. Clustering of the self-organizing map. IEEE Transactions on neural networks, 2000, 11.3: 586-600., DOI: 10.1109/72.846731

VESANTO, Juha, et al. Data exploration process based on the self-organizing map. Helsinki University of Technology, 2002.

WIPO. (2011). "What is Intellectual Property?", WIPO Publication No: 450 E.