NÁRODOHOSPODÁŘSKÝ OBZOR 2 – 2003

Štefan Čarnický, Bohuslava Mihalčová
Analysis of selected factors of entrepreneurial environment of small and medium
businesses in Slovakia

Summary:
Small and medium enterprises represent an important factor of economic development in
any developed economy. But in spite of the fact that there are features of stability in our
republic, we can still find some reserves in our non-motivating entrepreneurial
environment. We came to this conclusion from the contact with practice. That is why
this paper will focus its attention on some factors of entrepreneurial environment where
small and medium size enterprises operate and we would like, by means of these factors,
to approach to the problems of enterprising and to bring possible visions for their more
successful development.
 

Katarína Gofusová, Alexandra Chapčáková
The foreign market research as a condition of succesful entrance to the market

Summary:
This article is aimed at the explanation of the importance of market research in a case
when a company wants to enter foreign markets. To be successful in this process certain
procedure has to be done in order to minimize the risk of such an operation. Therefore it
is necessary to know what kind of information is needed, how to carry out the market
research and what are the main areas where the market research in needed.
 

Anežka Jankovská
Development of the exchange rate of Czech and Slovak crown.

Summary:
The paper analyzes the development of the Czechoslovak and Slovak crown’s exchange
rate. The development of the Slovak crown is closely connected to the Czechoslovak
crown’s development and therefore due attention is given to the Czechoslovak crown’s
development, too. The used systems of the Czechoslovak crown’s exchange rate from its
very beginning in 1919 up to the separation in 1993 are explained. Further the
development of the Slovak crown’s exchange rate is analyzed with stress on its
autonomous regulation by the National Bank of Slovakia in the period of joining the
European Union and European Monetary Union. The paper ends with the perspective of
the end of the Slovak crown and its substitution by the euro in the 3rd phase of Slovakia’s
process of joining the EMU.

Ivan Laluha
A social phenomenon in life attitudes of Alexander Dubček.

Summary:
Alexander Dubček belongs to an outstanding personality of the modern history of
Czecho-Slovakia and Slovakia in the second half of the 20th century. He became a
symbol of democracy, social justice and of a “common European house”.
When the directive model of socialism in the 1960s the 20th century fails, A. Dubček
tries to restore it. His program and thinking develop and overcome the dogmatic
stereotypes and move from mass understanding of social justice to a humanistic
conception that is based on civil and human rights and on functioning social market
economy with controlling mechanisms.
Conceptions for this model at the beginning of the age transformation were finished by
the tragic car accident (1992) and remained only as a starting point of principles, rules
and presumptions.

Tibor Paulík, Pavlína Pellešová
Development of democratization process and economic transformation in the Central
and Eastern European Countries, and in countries of the former Soviet Union.

Summary:
The article evaluates and compares development of democratization processes and
economic transitions of the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia
during the period from November 2000 till the end of December 2001. The
democratization score represents the average of the accomplished level of political
process, civic society, independent media, and governance and public administration.
The of law system score represents the average of the standard evaluation of
constitutional, legislative, and judicial framework, as well as the prevalence of
corruption. The economic liberalization score represents the average of ratings for
privatization, macroeconomic policy, and microeconomic policy.
 

Daniel Stavárek
Analysis of foreign exchange market in the light of current development trends.

Summary:
Foreign exchange markets play a crucial role in international financial system and world
economy. Because of that they are hit by some significant factors and development
trends which influence the markets considerably. The most essential and evident
symptom is a substantial decline in total turnover of foreign exchange markets in the
recent years. The main factors underlying these changes appear to have been the
introduction of euro, consolidation in the banking industry, a growing share of electronic
broking in the spot market and consolidation in the corporate sector. Foreign exchange
markets are on the way to higher transparency efficiency, lower transaction costs and
higher concentration. Mainly the central and Eastern European countries’ foreign
exchange markets will be influenced by European Union and European Monetary Union
enlargement and disappearing of number of national currencies.
 

Judita Táncošová
Foreign direct investments – theoretical aspects.

Summary:
The foreign direct investment is one of the possibilities of solving the problem of capital
shortage in transitive economies. The essence, the role, the forms and the realization of
FDI are in the centre of interest of many economists, who create new theoretical and
practical solutions. The purpose of the theories (market imperfections theory, market
structure distortions theory, internalization theory, eclectic theory) is mostly the analysis
of the advantages and disadvantages of FDI, reasons and motives of internationalization.

Mária Tokárová

New paradigm of competitiveness as innovation of the static model of (perfect)
competition.

Summary:
In the course of the development stages in the theories of contestability (competitiveness)
and anti-trust policy, an important role is played by a new technocratic paradigm of
competitiveness, i.e., the new competitiveness versus its traditional static concept. The
new paradigm means overcoming a static neo-classical microeconomics by introducing
this new type of competitiveness. The purpose of the latter is to make the decisionmaking
criteria, as well as the decision-making of economic conflicts and the issues
within the capacity of the institutions, securing the operation of anti-trust legislation and
policy, more objective (corresponding to real-life conditions). The rise, establishment
and a gradual enforcement of a wide range of competitiveness (contestability) theories
since the early 80’s at first in the USA and approximately since 1984 – 86 also the
European Continent’s economies is, in fact, the most recent contribution to increasing a
real-life nature of anti-trust policy.